An analysis of the issue of anemia in the elderly
Mean corpuscular volume correlated only weakly with the various anemia subtypes.
Table 1 Classification of anemia based on laboratory parameters Parameter. These findings do not only give a better insight into the pathogenesis of anemia in frailty, but also offer new treatment options.
Diet for anemia in the elderly
Frailty is considered to be a high risk state for adverse health outcomes. Wu et al give a solid review of studies supporting the biomarking roles of cytokines as well as frailty in the individual health risk management of older patients. Table 1 Classification of anemia based on laboratory parameters Parameter. Erythrocyte suicidal death or eryptosis is a physiologic mechanism to remove defective erythrocytes from blood circulation. New parameters are needed to differentiate the multifactorial pathogenesis of anemia in the elderly. In , Fried et al developed the first definition of frailty, based on the relationship between biologic and age-associated markers, linking in a cycle of frailty, spiraling down through sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and chronic undernutrition to reduced walking speed, weight loss, and finally immobility. Partly treatable nutritional deficiencies, such as iron or folate deficiency, were identified as possible causes. The final common path will lead to frailty Figure 1. The consequence of the constant proinflammatory state does not only increase susceptibility to age-related diseases but also makes older patients prone to faster progression of all age-associated diseases. Recent studies have focused on the bone marrow microenvironment, having a vital influence on the development of hematopoietic stem cells HSCs. Although until now the exact underlying mechanisms are still unclear, one might assume a close connection between inflammaging, anemia, and frailty Figure 1 with ROS in the center position, fed by comorbidities and inflammaging; ROS might cause eryptosis, the link to ACI, which has been shown to be the most frequent type of anemia in the aged. A Spanish study group 52 showed a significant association between the anemia-associated parameter red cell distribution width RDW and mortality, with RDW rising during the last 5 years of life. Patients with folate deficiency should have concomitant vitamin B12 deficiency corrected first, because repletion of folate can mask concurrent vitamin B12 deficiency.
These biomarkers will allow an optimized prediction of morbidity, mortality, and adverse health outcome in every individual patient. The present article focuses on this assumed association between anemia, frailty, and inflammaging and summarizes current management options for anemia in frail patients.
Causes of anemia in elderly females
This retention is mediated by inflammation-associated excessive elevation of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin, inhibiting the release of iron from RES cells. The possibility of abuse or neglect should always be considered in older patients with malnutrition. Liquid formulations also allow for easy dose titration. These findings do not only give a better insight into the pathogenesis of anemia in frailty, but also offer new treatment options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly in a well defined hospital cohort. This article focuses on treatment in the outpatient setting for the most common etiologies in older patients. Laboratory values were assessed during routine workup and treatment of patients. In the study by Lupescu et al, seven patients suffered from diabetes mellitus, 14 from chronic kidney disease, and four from heart failure. It is characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of phosphatidylserine to the membrane surface, enabling phagocytes to engulf erythrocytes and eliminate them from circulation to prevent hemolysis. Iron replacement therapy can be used as a treatment, as well as a diagnostic discriminator.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly in a well defined hospital cohort.
Besides the ROS triggers, Lang and Lang 55 also listed several morbidities like diabetes mellitus, chronic heart disease, chronic renal insufficiency, and dehydration to be associated with eryptosis.
It is characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of phosphatidylserine to the membrane surface, enabling phagocytes to engulf erythrocytes and eliminate them from circulation to prevent hemolysis.
based on 52 review